Научный журнал Моделирование, оптимизация и информационные технологииThe scientific journal Modeling, Optimization and Information Technology
cетевое издание
issn 2310-6018

The controlling method for pedestrian safety within the frame of evacuation simulation

idShikhalev D.V.

UDC 614.849
DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2021.33.2.025

  • Abstract
  • List of references
  • About authors

The article is devoted to developing a method for managing safe evacuation conditions within the framework of a fire risk calculation procedure based on improving the approach to determining the required evacuation time. The assessment of the existing coefficient of 0.8 was conducted. This coefficient is used to determine the maximum permissible estimated time for people evacuation. It was found that the linear dependence of this coefficient does not reflect the specificity of the influence of the blocking time, both at low and high values of this time. In addition, it was found that the existing method for determining the conditions for safe evacuation requires perfection since it does not allow taking into account the value of the blocking time of escape routes. On the one hand, this leads to an increase in the danger of evacuees in the case of a short blocking time, and on the other hand, to an increase in the cost of ensuring fire safety in the case of long evacuation times. Two ways of improving the coefficient are proposed. It represents a more rational approach to determining the coefficient when assessing the conditions for safe evacuation. A parametric assessment of the proposed methods is carried out in comparison with the existing ones. The results showed that the proposed methods make it possible to more rationally determine the required evacuation time due to the absence of linear dependence on the blocking time. At the same time, the existing method significantly increases the area of unacceptable values of the required evacuation time while increasing the blocking time. Computer simulation for people evacuation and fire spreading was carried out. The effectiveness of the proposed methods was confirmed. The conditions for safe evacuation were calculated based on the existing approach and the newly proposed ones. The results showed that one of the proposed approaches makes it possible to assess the conditions for safe evacuation more rationally and to analyze the conditions under consideration at a higher quality level. At the same time, one of the proposed methods showed its imperfection and was not accepted. An algorithm for managing the condition of safe people evacuation has been developed based on the proposed method for a building in case of fire.

1. Fire and fire safety in 2018. Statistical issues. All-Russian Research Institute for Fire Protection of EMERCOM of Russia, 2020. (in Russ)

2. Technical regulations for fire safety requirements. Federal Law on 22.07.2008 No. 123. (in Russ)

3. Technique of determination of settlement sizes of fire risk in buildings, constructions and structures of various classes of functionalfire danger. Order of Emercom of Russia on 30.06.2009 No. 382. 2009. (in Russ)

4. Meshalkin E.A., Burbah V.A., Vantyakshev N.N. O primenenii metodik raschetov po ocenke pozharnyh riskov. Pozharovzryvobezopasnost. 2015;2(24):23-31. (in Russ)

5. Yakush S.E., Esmanskiy R.K. Analysis of Fire Risks. Part I: Approaches and Methods. Issues оf Risk Analysis Journal. 2009;3(6):8-25. (in Russ)

6. Bukowski R.W., Waterman T.E., Christian W.J. Detector sensitivity and siting requirement for dwellings. Technical Report NBS-GCR-75-51, U.S. National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, MD, 1975.

7. Cooper L.Y. A concept for estimating available safe egress time in fires. Fire Safety Journal. 1983;5(2):135-144. DOI: 10.1016/0379-7112(83)90006-1.

8. SFPE Engineering Guide to Performance-Based Fire Protection. National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA, 2006.

9. Meacham B.J., Charters D., Johnson P., Salisbury M. Building Fire Risk Analysis. SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering. Springer, New York. 2016. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-2565-0_75

10. Kuehnen R. T., Youssef M. A., El-Fitiany S. Performance-Based Design of RC Columns using an Equivalent Standard Fire. Fire Safety Journal. 2020;111. DOI: 10.1016/j.firesaf.2019.102935

11. Lu L., Yuan G., Huang, Z., Shu Q., Li Q. Performance-based analysis of large steel truss roof structure in fire. Fire Safety Journal. 2017;93;21-38. DOI:10.1016/j.firesaf.2017.08.002

12. GOST R 12.1.004–91. Occupational safety standards system. Fire safety. General requirements. (in Russ)

13. Kholshchevnikov V.V., Parfenenko A.P. Comparison of different models of the movement of human flows and results of program computer systems. Pozharovzryvobezopasnost. 2015;24(5):68-75. (in Russ)

14. Gudin S.V., Khabibulin R.S., Rubtsov D.N. Problems of decision making in the fire risks management at the territories of oil processing facilities using modern software products. Pozharovzryvobezopasnost. 2015;24(12):40-45. (in Russ) DOI: 10.18322/PVB.2015.24.12.40-45

15. Fedorec A.G. Osnovnye napravleniya sovershenstvovaniya sistemy obespecheniya pozharnoi bezopasnosti na osnove metodologii upravleniya pozharnymi riskami. Pozharovzryvobezopasnost. 2009;18(9):22-29. (in Russ)

16. Udilov V.P., Nominat S.G., Kubarev A.S. et al. Model of a fire and environmental risk management system at the interregional level. Fire safety. 2007;(1):116-122. (in Russ)

17. User manual Fenix+2. Program for determining the value of an individual fire risk, Nizhny Novgorod, 2021. (in Russ)

18. Samoshin D.A. Problems of regulation of time to start evacuation. Pozharovzryvobezopasnost. 2016;25(5):37-51. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.18322/PVB.2016.25.05.37-51. (in Russ)

19. Ronchi E. Developing and validating evacuation models for fire safety engineering. Fire Safety Journal, 2021;120. DOI:10.1016/j.firesaf.2020.103020

20. Lovreglio R., Ronchi E., Borri D. The validation of evacuation simulation models through the analysis of behavioural uncertainty. Reliability Engineering & System Safety. 2014;131:166-174. DOI:10.1016/j.ress.2014.07.007

21. Ronchi E. New approaches to evacuation modelling. LUTVDG/TVBB No. 3209. Lund University, Department of Fire Safety Engineering.

22. Shakhuov T. Zh. Standardization of fire safety requirements for evacuation routes and exits from mosque buildings. dis.сand.tech.sciences. 2019. (in Russ)

23. Parfenenko A.P. Standardization of fire safety requirements for evacuation routes and exits in the buildings of preschool educational institutions. dis.сand.tech.sciences. 2021. (in Russ)

24. Slyusarev S.V. Rationing of fire safety requirements for evacuation routes and exits for children with disabilities in buildings with their mass presence. dis.сand.tech.sciences. 2017. (in Russ)

25. Samoshin D.A. Methodological foundations of standardization of safe evacuation of people from buildings in case of fire. dis.doct.tech.sciences. 2017. (in Russ)

26. Schröder B., Arnold L., Seyfried A. A map representation of the ASET-RSET concept. Fire Safety Journal, 2020;115. DOI:10.1016/j.firesaf.2020.103154.

27. Schröder B. Multivariate Methods for Life Safety Analysis in Case of Fire. PhD thesis. Forschungszentrum Jülich. 2016.

28. Evacuation of people: validation and verification. Program for determining the value of an individual fire risk Fenix+2, Nizhny Novgorod, 2020. (in Russ)

Shikhalev Denis Vladimirovic
Candidate of Technical Sciences

WoS | Scopus | ORCID |

the State Fire Academy of EMERCOM of Russia

Moscow, Russian Federation

Keywords: fire, evacuation, fire risks assessment,, margin safety, safe evacuatios, evacuation managenet, algorithm

For citation: Shikhalev D.V. The controlling method for pedestrian safety within the frame of evacuation simulation. Modeling, Optimization and Information Technology. 2021;9(2). Available from: https://moitvivt.ru/ru/journal/pdf?id=987 DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2021.33.2.025 (In Russ).

27

Full text in PDF

Revised 26.07.2021

Accepted 30.07.2021

Published 08.08.2021