** Keywords:**
local positioning system, dilution of Precision, geometric factor, greedy algorithm, DOP, trilateration

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Online media

issn 2310-6018

issn 2310-6018

2024.
T.12.
№ 2.
id 1579

Krizhanovsky M.N.
Tikhonova O.V.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2024.45.2.037

This article discusses the existing methods of positioning the base stations of the local positioning system in the work area. The choice of the station placement method largely determines the final accuracy and economic feasibility of the entire designed system. A review of the scientific literature has shown that there is currently no universal method for placing base stations in the positioning work area. Existing solutions implement either one of the standard approaches of station placement on a grid, or embody a method of sorting through many combinations of placements. The method of placing stations on a grid is not adapted to the conditions of designing a positioning system in a complex-shaped work area divided internally by various partitions and massive objects, since it does not take into account the peculiarities of radio signal propagation. The method of sorting through various combinations of base station placement in most software implementations is reduced to minimizing the influence of a geometric factor (Geometric Dilution of Precision - GDOP) on the measurement error of distances to stations and also does not take into account the distortion of the navigation signal introduced when passing through various obstacles. Therefore, the development of a methodology for the placement of base stations of a local positioning system is an urgent problem and the article is devoted to its solution. According to the proposed methodology, the working area containing massive obstacles on its area is divided into convex free subdomains in accordance with a greedy algorithm, in which the base stations are arranged. As a result of the work on the article, the principles for the operation of the base station placement methodology are outlined and a universal algorithm for station placement in work areas with obstacles is proposed.

** Keywords:**
local positioning system, dilution of Precision, geometric factor, greedy algorithm, DOP, trilateration

2024.
T.12.
№ 2.
id 1577

Евгений E.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2024.45.2.036

The tubing hanger is a structural element included in the subsea production system. The pipe hanger body is the basis of the tubing hanger structure and absorbs the downhole pressure and gravity of the screwed pipe string, whose strength and performance play a decisive role in ensuring the safety of the production process. Compromise of the structural integrity of the pipe hanger body structure can cause irreversible catastrophic consequences. Insufficiently developed engineering solutions for the design of the flow part of the pipe holder housing can lead to an increase in local hydraulic resistance, which contributes to an increase in energy costs for pumping the produced fluid using the gas lift method and, as a consequence, a decrease in the efficiency of the entire production pipeline line. In this regard, this article is aimed at identifying the degree of influence of the geometric parameters of the flow part of the pipe hanger body on the strength and hydraulic characteristics of the structure. The paper presents the results of computer modeling of the pipe hanger body under operating conditions using the finite element method, as well as the finite volume method using the Ansys calculation package. In finite element modeling of the stress-strain state of the pipe holder body, the problem was considered within the framework of an elastic formulation. Using the finite volume method, a single-phase gas flow was simulated with a pressure difference Δp = 1 MPa between the inlet and outlet of the flow channel, taking into account the k-ɛ turbulence model. Based on the modeling results, the strength and hydraulic parameters of the structure were determined. The results of calculations of equivalent stresses, as well as the coefficient of hydraulic resistance for various types of design of the flow part of the pipe holder body are presented. The materials of the article are of practical value for engineers involved in the design of elements of an underwater production system.

** Keywords:**
subsea production system, pipe hanger body, stress-strain state, tubing hanger, underwater fountain fittings, hydraulic resistance coefficient

2024.
T.12.
№ 2.
id 1575

Lvovich Y.E.
Pupykin A.N.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2024.45.2.018

The article discusses an approach to the intelligent management in organizational systems aimed at ensuring the efficiency of interaction between producers and consumers of activity results using digital technologies and optimization modeling. In the conditions of active digitization of business, a class of organizational systems with a digital activity results hub is identified. It is shown that in organizing the interaction between producers and consumers, management is aimed not only at coordinating objects of trading operations but also at regulating objects of information flows in order to reduce costs for digital transfer. At the same time, two optimization tasks arise, related to different schemes of distribution of objects from information flows by producers and consumers. In the first case, the optimized variables are the distribution coefficients of the planned volume of flow entering the digital hub between producing objects, taking into account promotion options. The extreme requirement ensures the minimization of costs, and the marginal requirement is associated with the planned maximum and minimum level of income of objects from the exchange of information with consumers. The decision-making algorithm combines random selection of coefficient values on a given interval with subsequent adjustment using gradient search. A stopping rule for the iterative process is selected, upon fulfillment of which the optimal distribution of information flows between objects is determined. In the second case, an optimization model is constructed in which the optimization variables are the coefficients of distribution of the planned volume of information flow between producers, taking into account the categories of activity results registered by the digital hub.

** Keywords:**
organizational system, digital hub, intellectualization, management, optimization modeling

2024.
T.12.
№ 2.
id 1574

Shtekhin Sergei Evgenievich S.E.
Stadnik A.V.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2024.45.2.035

In this paper, we consider methods for recognizing on video a specific class of technological manual labor operations, which are a sequence of movements of the hands and fingers. The technological operation in this work is considered as a sequence of new specific symbols of the sign language. The paper considers various methods of gesture recognition on video. In this paper, a two-step approach was investigated. At the first stage, the key points of the hands on each frame are recognized by using the open mediapipe library. At the second stage, a frame-by-frame sequence of keypoints transformed into text using a trained neural network of the transformer architecture. The main attention is paid to training a neural network model of the Transformer architecture based on the open American Sign Language (ASL) dataset for recognizing sign language sentences in video. The paper considers the applicability of approach and the trained model of ASL for recognizing technological operations of manual labor with fine-motor skills as a text sequence. The results obtained in this paper can be useful in the study of labor processes with fast movements and short time intervals in algorithms for recognizing technological operations of manual labor on video data.

** Keywords:**
video analysis of hand movements, gesture recognition, action recognition, deep neural networks, transformer, technological operations

2024.
T.12.
№ 2.
id 1573

Borovskiy A.V.
Yumenchuk A.A.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2024.45.2.034

The power demand on the electric grid varies depending on the time of day and the needs of consumers. Demand response is a change in the consumer load curve accompanied by a change of price, used primarily by suppliers to limit consumption peaks. Reducing the short-term mismatch between production and consumption helps to integrate renewable energy sources, various low-carbon technologies, battery storage of electricity and electric vehicles into the electric grid. One of the tools used to maintain a balance between electricity production and consumption is smart meters, which operating in asmart grid. Such devices are widespread in the United States and the European Union, in the residential sector too. At the moment, the introduction of smart grids in the residential sector is just beginning in the Russian Federation. The article considers a stochastic model of electricity consumption by household appliances, based on the convolution theory. The measurement of power consumption by the most common household appliances has been performed. Several examples of consumer profiling based on the obtained data are given.The barriers that arise during the implementation of smart grids in the Russian Federation are identified, as well as the reasons why the interest of electricity suppliers in smart grids is growing.

** Keywords:**
stochastic models, demand forecasting, multi-stage load, smart grid, energy consumption graph

2024.
T.12.
№ 2.
id 1572

Romanenko M.G.
Drozdova V.I.
Shagrova G.V.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2024.45.2.033

The relevance of modeling forced oscillations of microdroplet aggregates included in magnetic fluids is associated with the problem of predicting the parameters of working bodies of new devices and to the creation of new magnetosensitive media with controllable properties. The scientific interest is due to the unique sensitivity of microdroplet aggregates to the magnetic field, high magnetic permeability (for liquid media) and low interfacial tension at the aggregate-environmental liquid interface, which makes it possible to obtain forced oscillations of large amplitude. The nature of oscillations depends on the frequency and strength of the external field, as well as on the parameters of the aggregates. The peculiarities of forced oscillations of microdroplet aggregates at large amplitude are poorly understood; in particular, it is of interest to develop a universal modeling method suitable for computational experiments in a wide range of interfacial tension changes and to investigate the possibility of oscillation suppression with increasing frequency, carried out in this work. The modeling of forced oscillations is based on the energy approach and the assumption that the shape of the aggregate elongated along the field can be represented by an ellipsoid of rotation and its magnetization by a linear dependence on the external magnetic field strength. This allowed for a computational experiment with a change in interfacial tension by an order of magnitude in the range from 2 ∙ 10-6 N/m to 2 ∙ 10-5 N/m and obtain satisfactory agreement with the data of full-scale experiments. As a result of computational experiment, it is found that an increase in interfacial tension leads to a decrease in oscillation amplitude and a reduction in elongation, i.e., it suppresses oscillation. Of practical value is the prediction of the deformation of aggregates under the action of a magnetic field for the development of new materials with controllable properties.

** Keywords:**
numerical modeling, forced oscillations, microdroplet aggregates, interfacial tension, magnetic fluid

2024.
T.12.
№ 2.
id 1570

Aleshkov A.A.
Tsvetkov G.A.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2024.45.2.032

Any living organism has its own biological field, which depends both on the characteristics and state of the living organism and on environmental factors. Under informational influence of external factors, a change in the fractal structure of this field is observed and the formation of special chaotic signals, the parameters of which can serve as a basis for solving various scientific and practical problems. The article presents a technology for studying the electromagnetic fields of biological objects based on an analysis of changes in the chaos structure of broadband chaotic signals of their own electromagnetic radiation generated under the influence of an external informative electromagnetic field with a given strength and modulation-time parameters. To estimate the structure of chaotic signals it is proposed to use such methods of fractal approach as Poincaré mapping, calculation of the corresponding Hausdorff dimensionality and chaos-rhythm parameters. On the basis of the conducted experiments, the presence of a characteristic dependence of chaos-rhythm parameters of own electromagnetic emissions of a bioobject on the characteristics and state of the living organism itself, as well as on the parameters, sequence and rate of change of the external informative electromagnetic field has been established. The degree of informative influence of the external electromagnetic field on a human being is determined, which can exceed the energetic one by some indicators almost 4 times. The possibility of using the proposed technology to solve various scientific and practical problems has been proved: medical studies of the functional state of the organism, assessment and control of the impact of electromagnetic fields on human health, development of means to protect the environment and humans from radio-emitting systems, detection and recognition of bioobjects of a given class.

** Keywords:**
fractal approach, chaos-rhythm, hausdorff dimension, wideband chaotic signal, bioradioinformative technology, biological object, electromagnetic radiation, integral field, information interaction

2024.
T.12.
№ 2.
id 1569

Bochkarev A.V.
Lyubimova M.A.
Popov K.S.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2024.45.2.031

The relevance of the study is due to the problem of untimely analysis of the composition of liquid mixtures during their production by enterprises of the food, chemical and oil refining industries. The traditional method of such analysis is carried out after the formation of a batch of products, which is why enterprises incur costs associated with the disposal of defective batches of products. This article is devoted to the development of an acoustic measuring system for analyzing the composition of liquid substances, capable of being used to analyze various liquid products in industry in a continuous mode when transporting these products through the internal industrial pipeline system, which makes it possible to identify defects before the formation of a batch of products, thereby reducing disposal costs. The sounded system, built into the pipeline, contains two measuring channels, including two piezoelectric receivers and one piezoelectric emitter, common to the two channels. As part of this work, equipment is selected based on an analysis of the repeatability of research results, in particular, the possibility of using one or another generator that generates exciting signals for a piezoelectric emitter is considered. The possibility of using excitation signals of various shapes and/or durations is investigated, and repeatability is assessed based on the linear correlation coefficient between several repetitions of experiments with the same type of excitation signal. The need for two measuring channels is analyzed. The materials are of practical value for enterprises producing liquid products, as well as for manufacturers of analytical equipment.

** Keywords:**
acoustic measurement method, piezoelectric transducer, analytical studies, repeatability of results, linear correlation coefficient

2024.
T.12.
№ 2.
id 1567

Bakulin A.Y.
Lvovich Y.E.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2024.45.2.030

The article considers the approach to the analysis and optimization of the efficiency of network organizational systems in the conditions of intensification of automation and digitalization processes. The class of organizational systems with automated service devices, the result of whose activity is the performance of services, is singled out. The inclusion of service automata in the network structure determines the peculiarity of solving analysis and optimization problems. The analysis is based on simulation modeling of the studied class of systems as mass service systems with varying topology of service channels. Therefore, alternative variables characterizing topology components, which are related to duplication of both components and automated devices as a whole, are defined as optimizable variables. To these variables are added variables affecting customer loyalty by providing discounts in certain time periods. The optimization model is a combination of formalized descriptions of dependencies on the optimized variables of extreme and boundary requirements. As an extreme requirement the necessity of maximizing the income is defined, and the boundary requirements are the time characteristics related to the downtime of the automated devices and service downtime. Algorithmization of the decisions made on the variant of the network system topology and the mechanism for increasing customer loyalty is based on the combination of three components of the iterative search process: analysis of the organizational system under study using a simulation model; simulation of a directed enumeration at random values of alternative variables; final choice on the set of promising options by means of expert evaluation. The structural scheme of the algorithm based on the integration of the above components is proposed.

** Keywords:**
organizational system, automated service devices, simulation modeling, analysis, optimization, expert evaluation

2024.
T.12.
№ 3.
id 1566

Galushka M.S.
Vishnevetsky V.Y.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2024.46.3.025

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating psychiatric disorder that can develop after experiencing or a traumatic event. Current treatment approaches include psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy, however, they are not always effective, and some patients may experience residual symptoms or relapse. Biofeedback (BF) is a promising adjunctive treatment for PTSD that focuses on training patients to consciously control their physiological responses to trauma-related triggers. BF involves the use of electronic devices to measure and provide real-time feedback to patients about their physiological functions, such as heart rate, muscle tension, sweating, and brain activity. The analysis of biofeedback data requires the development of specialized algorithms and software, including machine learning and data mining techniques to process large datasets and reveal hidden patterns. This review examines the existing research on the effectiveness of BF, specifically neurofeedback and biofeedback, in the rehabilitation of PTSD. Analysis of 19 randomized controlled trials, conducted between 2014 and 2024, revealed that various types of BF, including neurofeedback, heart rate variability biofeedback, respiratory biofeedback, effectively reduce the severity of PTSD symptoms, as well as comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders. The review also discusses the different BF protocols used in the treatment of PTSD, including the types of sensors used, feedback parameters, and treatment duration. A model for increasing the effectiveness of biofeedback in the treatment of PTSD is presented. Findings indicate that BF can be an effective adjunct or alternative to traditional treatments, particularly in cases of chronic and complex PTSD. Despite promising findings, further research with larger sample sizes and standardized protocols is needed to determine the optimal treatment protocols and the long-term efficacy of BF for PTSD.

** Keywords:**
PTSD, BF, neurofeedback, biofeedback, rehabilitation, information technology, data mining, modeling

2024.
T.12.
№ 2.
id 1565

Gafanovich E.J.
Lomakov A.V.
Lvovich A.I.
Choporov O.N.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2024.45.2.014

The article discusses the use of the results of an analysis of the dynamics of morbidity indicators and clinical examination of the population of the region based on visual and prognostic modeling of long-term medical and statistical information. Arterial hypertension was chosen as a group of diseases. Medical statistics data from the Voronezh region for 2013-2022 were used. It is proposed to carry out visual modeling of time series characterizing the dynamics of morbidity and clinical examination indicators, based on the analysis of their graphical representation and the use of human visual-figurative intuition mechanisms when comparing visualization results. Visual modeling made it possible to characterize the trend in the annual increase in the incidence of hypertension in the adult population of the Voronezh region and to establish important information for decision-making by healthcare authorities about periods of decreasing incidence growth rates. Another important assessment for government authorities is the adequacy of the clinical examination process to trends in the dynamics of morbidity, which is established by comparing visualization results and is determined by coinciding changes in the graphical presentation of time series of relevant indicators. To use the results of predictive modeling, first of all, a number of methods are compared in terms of the root mean square error of forecasting the dynamics of time series: autoregressive integrated moving average, simple exponential smoothing, linear Holt method, triple exponential smoothing. It is concluded that the first method shows the best result, and the forecast estimates confirm the results of visual analysis. These estimates guide healthcare authorities to maintain the growth rate of resources allocated for medical examinations in the region in future periods.

** Keywords:**
medical and statistical information, morbidity, medical examinations, data visualization, predictive modeling, resource management

2024.
T.12.
№ 3.
id 1563

Lebedev V.I.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2024.46.3.007

The paper investigates the possibility of cyclic behavior of dynamic synergetic systems taking into account nonlinear processes of different increasing orders. The systems are represented in the form of dynamic, nonlinear, differential equations in phase spaces. Phase spaces are formed from the essential variables characterizing the system. Essential variables form a system of "order parameters" for models. Bifurcations in the behavior of a number of models of dynamic synergetic systems have been studied and the processes of the emergence of cyclic behavior in dynamic synergetic systems have been studied. Nonlinear processes in dynamical systems and their changes at special points of phase diagrams are studied. The behavior and stability of synergetic models in the areas of simple elementary catastrophes such as "assembly" and "fold" have been studied. Cyclic processes in the event of an “assembly” type disaster are investigated. A model of cyclical logistic revolutions in regional economies is considered. Cycles in the "soft" Arnold disaster "dovetail" have been studied. The occurrence of cyclic processes, as well as the stability of cycles, has been studied. Methods for model verification and model management capabilities are determined. The areas of phase diagrams for complex nonlinear dynamical systems with cyclic behavior are investigated. Dynamics of cycles in different regions of the phase space for synergetic systems is discussed. The problems of verification and control of models with the possible appearance of cycles are identified, and the emergence of higher order cycles is discussed.

** Keywords:**
mathematical models, synergetic systems, phase spaces, catastrophes, bifurcations, cyclic processes, model verification, cycle stability

2024.
T.12.
№ 2.
id 1561

Malygin D.S.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2024.45.2.029

Microservices architecture (MSA) represents a modern approach in software development, aimed at enhancing flexibility, scalability, and resilience to changes in both business and technological requirements. This study focuses on identifying and analyzing the opportunities and risks of applying MSA within the context of operating systems (OS), which is particularly relevant against the backdrop of accelerating digitalization and increasing software demands. The objective of the study is to assess and forecast the role of MSA in the future of OS, including an analysis of current trends and predictions for the coming decade. The research methodology is based on a comparative analysis of microservices and monolithic architectures and includes data from current research works dedicated to MSA. The main findings of the study underscore the significant increase in efficiency and performance of software systems through the implementation of MSA, demonstrated by the acceleration of development and improvement of continuous integration and delivery (CI/CD) capabilities, as well as enhanced system resilience. Key risks and issues related to the use of microservices were also identified and systematized, including management challenges and potential security threats, highlighting the need for the development of specialized tools and approaches for security and monitoring of microservices systems. The value of this research lies in providing a deep understanding of the role and place of MSA in modern OS, offering a comprehensive analysis of risks and opportunities, serving as a foundation for developing effective implementation and utilization strategies of microservices. The results and recommendations contribute to the improvement of practical skills and the development of concepts in system architecture, providing valuable guidance for IT professionals, system architects, and developers in the field of software optimization and enhancing its reliability and performance.

** Keywords:**
microservice architecture, cloud systems, flexibility, scalability, security, continuous integration

2024.
T.12.
№ 2.
id 1560

Gudkova E.A.
Tarantseva K.R.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2024.45.2.028

Mathematical modeling of the «flow tube – liquid» system represents a current direction in engineering and scientific practice, since it allows optimizing the design of flow tubes, assessing the influence of various factors, such as pressure, temperature, viscosity and liquid composition on the operation of the system without the need for complex and expensive full-scale experiments. In this regard, this article is aimed at developing algorithms for implementing a mathematical model of the «flow tube – liquid» system of a Coriolis flow meter. The work synthesized an algorithm for developing a numerical model in the multiphysics modeling package COMSOL Multiphysics, which made it possible to increase the reliability of the simulation and reduce the complexity of creation and debugging through the use of the modular principle. A computational algorithm has been developed and a mathematical description of the calculation of the average time delay of signals from Coriolis flow meter sensors has been performed. The algorithm uses a linear interpolation method based on known data points obtained as a result of a computational experiment. An algorithm for running a program in Python using the Comsol API is proposed, which automates the processing of data arrays and the calculation of average time and phase delays. The algorithms are implemented using the UML language in the Enterprise Architect software product. The materials of the article are of practical value for specialists in the field of numerical modeling and optimization of Coriolis flow meter parameters.

** Keywords:**
«flow tube – liquid» system, coriolis flow meter, computer modeling, numerical model, computational experiment

2024.
T.12.
№ 2.
id 1559

Bukholtsev I.M.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2024.45.2.017

The article proposes structural solutions related to the construction of the investment management system of a multi-object organizational system and its detailing for making managerial decisions at the stages of formation and implementation of the development program. It is shown that the structuring of the management process is determined by the peculiarities of a number of components: information support, requirements of the control center, mechanisms of expert evaluation, the need to balance investments at the stage of formation of the development program and rebalancing - at the stage of implementation. Intellectual support of management decision-making is carried out using monitoring information, prognostic and optimization modeling. The sequence of procedures within the framework of the structural scheme of investment balancing process management at the formation of the development program of a multi-object organizational system is substantiated. The procedures that require the involvement of expert evaluations for their realization are specified. The transition to optimization modeling on the basis of transforming the requirements of the control center into a formalized description of extreme and boundary requirements is considered. The possibilities of structuring the management of the investment rebalancing process in the implementation of the development program of a multi-object organizational system are determined on the basis of the availability of information resources that allow to form time series of performance indicators and to train predictive models on this basis. The tasks and methods of optimization of the management decision-making process using predictive models are characterized.

** Keywords:**
structurization, management, multi-object organizational system, monitoring, forecasting, optimization modeling

2024.
T.12.
№ 2.
id 1557

Belykh M.A.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2024.45.2.027

The article considers the mathematical formulation of a multi-criteria transport problem with time constraints. The criteria in it are the cost of transportation, their importance and the time spent on transportation. A feature of this task is the presence of time constraints, such as time windows for customers and the duration of stay of vehicles on the road. As a solution to the multi-criteria problem, the selection of Pareto optimal points is proposed, since this optimization method has a wide range of tasks to apply. The formulation of pareto optimization and the definition of pareto optimality are given. Pareto optimization methods are considered: the lexicographic method and scalarization, the varieties of which are the method of ε-constraints, which is based on the gradation of optimization criteria in descending order of their importance, and the method of linear scalarization, the mechanism of which is based on combining all optimization functions into one. Using the example, we consider the reduction of a formalized multicriteria transport problem to a form suitable for scalarization. The definition of pareto efficiency seems acceptable for the implementation of its mechanisms as part of an adaptive decision support system aimed at solving optimization problems in various fields and operating with heuristic algorithms.

** Keywords:**
optimization problem, multi-criteria transport problem, time-bound problem, pareto optimization, pareto optimality, decision support systems

2024.
T.12.
№ 3.
id 1556

Arutiunian M.A.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2024.46.3.021

The article presents one of the scientific results obtained by the author during his dissertation research a combined numerical method for solving the problem of rational placement of technical means of traffic management, based on the use of the gradient descent method together with the Newton-Raphson method. One of the pressing problems of the development of a modern city is raised, which is the formation of a convenient and safe road and transport infrastructure. According to statistics, in the Russian Federation every year almost 20% of the total number of road accidents occur in collisions with pedestrians outside pedestrian crossings. As one of the solutions to the problem under consideration, it is proposed to install technical means of organizing traffic, in particular pedestrian crossings, on those streets on which they are either irrationally located or absent altogether. A mathematical model for the rational placement of technical means of traffic management has been developed and a numerical method for its solution has been proposed. It is noted that the combined numerical method proposed by the author allows one to quickly and accurately find the optimal parameters for the developed mathematical model, which helps to improve its performance and accuracy. It is generalized that the joint application of the considered numerical methods is a fairly effective way to solve the problem.

** Keywords:**
numerical methods, gradient descent method, newton-Raphson method, technical means of traffic management, road safety

2024.
T.12.
№ 2.
id 1554

Trapeznikov E.V.
Magazev A.A.
Kasenov A.A.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2024.45.2.011

The paper presents a description of the Markov model of cyber attacks as a method for analyzing information security in automated systems. Based on the presented model, the work provides a description of two safety metrics - the average time to safety failure (the average number of transitions between states in the corresponding Markov chain before it first enters one of the absorbing states) and the average risk in case of safety failure (the sum of the products of damages during the implementation of each from cyber attacks to the corresponding probabilities of these cyber attacks). An algorithm for estimating input parameters is given based on the relationship between the threat and vulnerability databases CVE, CWE and CAPEC. The relationships described in the work allow us to calculate the vector of probabilities of the occurrence of cyber attacks and the vector of damage from cyber attacks, which are formed as input data for the security assessment model. The paper also addresses the problem of numerical estimation of parameters through CVSS metrics. The study demonstrates that the vector of probabilities of repelling cyber attacks and the vector of probabilities of “delays” of cyber attacks can only be obtained using the method of expert assessments or statistics. The work also provides a description of the developed software product, which allows one to assess the security of an automated system over a given period of time.

** Keywords:**
security metrics, CVSS metric, CVE, CWE, CAPEC, cyberattack model, data collection algorithm, automated system, markov chain, expert assessment method

2024.
T.12.
№ 2.
id 1553

Sandler I.L.
Ivanov D.V.
Portnov A.A.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2024.45.2.026

One of the most important tasks faced by developers of pneumatic automation systems is to reduce the time of analysis and design at the research stage. The use of specialized software makes it possible to significantly improve the operation of pneumatic automation systems. Simulation of pneumatic robotic manipulators allows you to identify vulnerabilities, optimize control processes, conduct virtual tests of various work scenarios, which will help improve planning and management, while achieving significant improvements in system performance and reliability. The article presents an information and measuring system for the pneumatic drive of the robot (manipulator) links for specialized industrial purposes of the MP-11 model in the form of a simulation model, which is implemented by the method of simulation of pneumatic systems on the FluidSIM-P (FluidSIM Pneumatic) package of the Festo company. The result of the operation of the information and measuring system are graphs of transient processes of movement of the rods of pneumatic cylinders, which adequately describe the real operating mode of the pneumatic actuator of the manipulator MP-11. The materials of the article are of practical value for specialists involved in the design and analysis of automation systems. In addition, the results of the article may be useful for students and researchers studying the field of automation and system design. Anyone interested in the application of automation technologies in various fields will find valuable information in the article for their work and research.

** Keywords:**
information and measurement system, robot, MP-11, simulation model, pneumatic circuit, transients, fluidSIM-P, pneumatic

2024.
T.12.
№ 2.
id 1551

Lepeshkina E.S.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2024.45.2.025

The problem of multiple faults in the memory chips of on-board equipment of spacecraft as a result of the impact of individual nuclear particles in outer space is considered. A review of the literature showed that the danger of multiple failures is real and will increase as technological standards for the design of electronic components decrease. Double multiple faults are currently the most pressing threat, as they are caused by charged particles with relatively low energies. Double faults can be adjacent or non-adjacent. Adjacent double faults are caused by the simultaneous action of a single nuclear particle. Non-adjacent faults are the result of the accumulation of single failures that occurred at different times in different storage cells of the same memory word. Under certain conditions, the occurrence of double non-contiguous errors can be avoided. To protect against double adjacent errors, correcting codes are used. These codes are relatively new and there is no general description of their construction. These codes are guaranteed to correct single errors and double adjacent errors, but have a significant probability of erroneously correcting a non-adjacent double error. But when moving to practical use, it is necessary to determine the requirements for the type of check matrix for these codes, to find a general algorithm for their construction for different memory word lengths, with low redundancy and high performance, provided that the correcting abilities of the code are subject to the requirements of detecting and correcting only single and double adjacent errors and no additional ones.

** Keywords:**
single memory failures, single and multiple faults, double faults, frequency of multiple faults, measures to protect against multiple failures, double error correction codes

2024.
T.12.
№ 2.
id 1550

Nepomnyashchiy V.Y.
Panarin V.M.
Maslova A.A.
Ryabov P.E.
Prokopchina S.V.
Kochkarov A.A.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2024.45.2.024

The relevance of the study is due to the fact that an important factor in the reliable operation of overhead power lines is the proper operation of insulator strings, and damage to the insulator strings’ insulation can lead to an increase in leakage currents, energy losses, including emergency situations when insulators are damaged. Also, adverse weather conditions such as ice, snow, rain, fog, and strong wind can lead to additional losses of electricity. In this regard, this article is aimed at describing a new mathematical model of the channel for measuring the mechanical load on the insulator to assess the technical condition of the insulators, which is implemented as a separate block of the information-measuring system for remote monitoring of overhead line insulators, and provides the control center operator with up-to-date information about the current condition insulators, and also allows you to reduce the number of emergency situations through timely repair or replacement of insulators. The leading method in constructing a mathematical model of a channel for measuring the mechanical load on an insulator is to consider the static load with the prospect of assessing the processes of ice formation on the wires of an overhead power line, which makes it possible to record the dynamics of the increase in the mechanical load on the insulator (fixation of ice formation), as well as without unnecessary labor costs and time resources create an easy-to-use digital model of the energy system, which provides the opportunity to implement the structure, state and operation of a real energy system with sufficient efficiency, completeness and reliability. The article presents a sequence of measured values of the mechanical load sensor on the insulator when quantized in time, which are then compared with the value of the static load on the insulator, determined by the weight of the wire on the span of overhead power lines, and as a result, an assessment of the increase in the mechanical load on the insulator is made and the formation of ice is recorded on overhead lines. The materials of the article are of practical value for operational services of electric grid companies.

** Keywords:**
remote monitoring, overhead power line, insulator, diagnostics, mechanical load, channel

2024.
T.12.
№ 2.
id 1549

Shevnina Y.S.
Ryabov P.E.
Prokopchina S.V.
Kochkarov R.A.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2024.45.2.023

The article presents approaches to predicting the dynamics of the state of supporting components of information and control systems using the example of modeling the power system of a manufacturing enterprise. A method for modeling other types of supporting components based on the proposed approaches is considered. Modeling the state of the power system of a manufacturing enterprise is based on its representation in the form of a set of T-shaped cells consisting of resistance, capacitance and inductance. Forecasting changes in the state of the supporting components of the information and control system is carried out using a multilayer feed-forward neural network, taking into account nonlinear factors determined by the external and internal state of the production environment. Environmental parameters, data on depreciation of actuators and equipment, and regulatory production requirements are used as independent variables, and the power of the enterprise's energy system is used as a dependent variable. In this case, the power calculation is carried out on the basis of the described power system model using T-shaped cells. The model was trained on the basis of accumulated data. The obtained results of modeling the state of the supporting components of information control systems show that using a feedforward neural network model with one hidden layer and six nodes in it to predict the dynamics allows one to obtain an accurate power forecast taking into account various nonlinear factors. Experimental data are presented that prove the effectiveness of the approaches proposed by the authors for predicting the state of supporting components.

** Keywords:**
information and control systems, state forecasting, nonlinear factors, power systems, feedforward neural network

2024.
T.12.
№ 3.
id 1548

Preobrazhensky A.P.
Lvovich Y.E.
Avetisyan T.V.
Preobrazhensky Y.P.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2024.46.3.006

To date, among the various applied tasks in electrodynamics, it is possible to note the development of various approaches aimed at evaluating and studying the scattering characteristics of various electrodynamic objects. Among them, three-dimensional objects can be distinguished, which include flat surfaces and angular structures. Their contribution to the levels of electromagnetic fields in certain directions can be quite noticeable. In order to correctly solve the problem of scattering of electromagnetic wave scattering characteristics, it is necessary to rely on appropriate methods. At the same time, it is necessary to minimize possible errors, but the three-dimensional problem in question needs to be solved in a relatively short time. In this paper, the construction of a technique related to the determination of the scattering characteristics of a structure in the form of a cube is carried out. This is due to the fact that such structures are part of a large number of modern technical facilities, this must be taken into account during their design. To solve this problem, the method of integral equations was chosen. The results of the simulation are presented. A comparison with experimental data is carried out, and it is shown that the solution converges. A comparison with the characteristics of the Huygens cube is also carried out.

** Keywords:**
numerical simulation of scattering, diffraction of electromagnetic waves, cube structure, integral equation, huygens cube

2024.
T.12.
№ 2.
id 1547

Petrunina E.V.
Safronov R.I.
Pshenichny A.E.
Filist S.A.
Shehine M.T.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2024.45.2.010

As a result of the research, a method for classifying the adaptive potential of the human body was developed. The method is based on the use of data obtained by conducting a functional test associated with the Heaviside function, through which a model of the transition process in a living system is obtained. Representing a living system as quasi-linear, based on its impedance model, the spectral characteristics of the living system are obtained, on the basis of which descriptors are formed for the machine learning model. To obtain an impedance model of a living system, a three-phase experiment technique is proposed. The three-phase experiment technique consists of modeling the Heaviside function in the process of performing a bicycle ergometer functional test at three levels of the functional state of the human body. This allows us to calculate descriptors for the three “branches” of the adaptive potential classifier. The adaptive potential classifier includes a driver for constructing a linear impedance model of a living system, a descriptor generator, and a decision-making module. As a linear impedance model of a living system, the amplitude-phase-frequency characteristic of a four-terminal network is used, constructed from the transient characteristic of a model of a living system, and the descriptors are calculated using the Voight impedance model, which is adequate to the experimentally obtained amplitude-phase-frequency characteristic of a model of a living system. The quality indicators of the dichotomous classifier of adaptive potential were assessed on an experimental group of undergraduate and graduate students, divided into two classes using an indicator of the activity of regulatory systems. They showed that the level of true positive and true negative results when classifying unknown examples satisfactorily corresponds to expert estimates. This allows us to recommend it for use in practical medicine, for example, in biotechnical rehabilitation systems, sports medicine, as well as for monitoring the dynamics of the patient’s functional state during treatment.

** Keywords:**
adaptation potential, transient response, impedance model, classifier, neural network, algorithm

2024.
T.12.
№ 2.
id 1545

Драгунов С.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2024.45.2.009

The method of computer-aided design of the exoskeleton of the lower extremities using parametric design is intended for creating medical exoskeletons of the lower extremities according to the anthropometric parameters of the operator, which allows reducing the error in combining the axes of movement of the exoskeleton joints and the axes of movement of the operator’s joints. The method is based on rebuilding a reference model of the exoskeleton of the lower extremities according to the anthropometric data of the operator and includes the following design procedures: the procedure for taking measurements from the operator, taking the image obtained as a result of 3D scanning, filling out the application form that takes into account operational requirements, outputting the rebuilt exoskeleton model and accompanying documentation. To determine the elemental base of the exoskeleton, a database of electrical and radio components selected for operational requirements is used. To construct a frame corresponding to anthropometric data, a previously created reference model of the lower extremity exoskeleton is used. To test the model, the method also includes a virtual simulation of work by superimposing a rebuilt exoskeleton model on a 3D model of the operator obtained as a result of 3D scanning, followed by checking the animation of movements and the combination of model collisions. To test the effectiveness, we tested the construction of exoskeletons for the anthropometric data of the user using manual and automatic methods.

** Keywords:**
design, CAD, automation, exoskeletons, anthropometric parameters, 3D model

2024.
T.12.
№ 2.
id 1543

Osamah A.R.
Kalinin M.Y.
Mutin D.I.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2024.45.2.001

The necessity of controlling the process of classifying information signals based on simple and two-connected Markov models is substantiated. The possibility of combining previously obtained models and a classification algorithm into a decision-making system in order to classify information signals (random processes) is shown according to the criterion of maximizing a posteriori probability. The article proposes a block diagram of the decision-making system, describes the developed software components that consistently implement both auxiliary and basic procedures that allow implementing previously synthesized Markov models and methods for evaluating their parameters, as well as a classification algorithm. The description of the possibility of learning the classification algorithm, both "with a teacher" and in the "self-learning" mode, is given, the volumes of samples of the observations provided by the studied signals for the formation of databases of Markov signal models, Markov models of signal classes are determined. The results of statistical simulation modeling of the dependence of the error probability on the size of the training sample are presented. Block diagrams of some software components of the decision support system are proposed. The results of the implementation of previously developed models, methods and algorithms in the form of software tools are considered, and the functionality of using these tools as part of a decision support system is shown. The results of calculations are presented, showing the adequacy of the solutions obtained and the functionality of the developed software tools. Conclusions are drawn about the possibility of using a decision support system in various subject areas, including when classifying the conditions of the patient's cardiovascular system according to the observed rhythmograms.

** Keywords:**
process control, markov model, classification, a posteriori probability, decision support system, algorithm training

2024.
T.12.
№ 2.
id 1541

Glushankov E.I.
Kondrshov Z.
Sudenkova A.
Rylov E.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2024.45.2.002

The article discusses the analysis of the adequacy of Markov models of parameters of partially coherent signals in radio systems based on stochastic differential equations, carried out in the MATLAB software environment. The results of modeling one-dimensional non-Gaussian and Gaussian continuous, discrete-continuous and mixed random processes are presented. The method of functional (quasi-Gaussian) approximation represents the multidimensional probability distribution density through one-dimensional component densities and elements of the correlation matrix of a vector random process. For the multidimensional probability distribution densities obtained as a result of this representation and the multidimensional stochastic differential equations synthesized on their basis, the modeling of vector random processes describing the parameters of partially coherent signals in continuous communication channels is considered. The compliance of the obtained models with theoretical distributions is assessed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit criterion. The ranges of changes in the parameters included in the SDE at which the model can be considered consistent, as well as the influence of the parameters on the shape of the distributions under consideration, are studied. Based on the results obtained, it is possible to estimate the ranges of changes in the parameters of the models that determine the form of stochastic differential equations, under which the requirements for the adequacy of the obtained models of partially coherent in the spatial and frequency sense of signals in radio systems are met.

** Keywords:**
partially coherent signals, stochastic differential equations, kolmogorov-Smirnov test, rayleigh and Gauss distribution models, functional approximation, white noise, poisson noise

2024.
T.12.
№ 2.
id 1540

Reznikov D.A.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2024.45.2.008

During their service in the penal system, employees continuously improve their knowledge, skills, and abilities through official training. This article discusses the problem of allocating training time to different areas in order to maximize the value of minimal average grades in those areas. A solution algorithm has been developed. The first step involves determining the maximum possible increase in the minimal average score for one area as well as the amount of time required for this increase. If the resultant score value is lower than the average score in other areas, the second step identifies the maximum possible increases for multiple areas and the corresponding amount of time needed. The article also determines the type of relationship between the increase in average grades for training areas and the time spent on training through the approximation of statistical data. This allows for the analytical solution of the problem. The analysis of the potential use of power and exponential functions for approximation, which allows for the approximate solution of a problem through numerical methods, is also conducted. The resulting values of the coefficient of determination confirm the high accuracy of the approximation. Graphs of the dependency are presented. Two examples of analytical solutions to the problem are provided, illustrating the use of the proposed method. In the first example, all employees have the same initial average training grades in all areas, and in the second example, average grades differ.

** Keywords:**
average grade, average grade increment, learning time, learning curve, approximation, least squares method

2024.
T.12.
№ 2.
id 1539

Rybakov M.A.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2024.45.2.003

The relevance of the study is due to the need to obtain analytical expressions of approximate solutions to complex technical problems, the mathematical description of which leads to boundary value problems for systems of differential equations in network-like domains and, in particular, on graphs. The article presents the formulation of an initial boundary value problem for an inhomogeneous continuum transfer equation in an n-dimensional network-like region. In the case of n=1, a symbolic method for solving the initial boundary value problem under consideration on a tree graph is proposed. The algorithm is based on the approximation of the partial derivative with respect to a time variable by a difference ratio (a two-layer approximation scheme is used) and the subsequent application of the Laplace transform to the resulting differential-difference system. A block diagram of the algorithm is presented, and a description of the structure of the software package based on the developed algorithm is given. The software package is developed in the Java programming language. To enter the initial data of the initial boundary value problem and output the solution, the web interface of the software package based on the Spring framework is used. To illustrate the operation of the software package, an example of solving an initial boundary value problem with a step-by-step demonstration of the calculation results is considered. The materials of the article are of practical value for specialists in the field of analysis of applied problems of network hydrodynamics, thermal engineering, as well as analysis of diffusion processes in biophysics.

** Keywords:**
symbolic method, differential-difference system, initial boundary value problem, continuum transfer equation, graph-tree

2024.
T.12.
№ 2.
id 1538

Lvovich I.Y.
Preobrazhenskiy A.P.
Lvovich Y.E.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2024.45.2.022

The article presents the results of a study involving the formation of an optimization model and an interactive procedure for making structural and component decisions based on the principles of building an integrated CAD of cyberphysical systems (CFS). A description is given of the five main levels within which the CFS design process is implemented. Some approaches that were used by the authors during the design of the design elements of the CFS are considered. The description of how the optimization model of structural and component synthesis is formed is given. The main components of such an optimization model are given. The structural elements of the CFS are described on the basis of a set of formed sets. Three groups of indicators in the model are identified. The first group includes reliability and cost, which are calculated for the entire CFS as a whole. The second group includes the indicators calculated for some digital threads. The third group of indicators is related to the principle of covering the entire life cycle of the CFS from project to operation. An interactive procedure for making a structural and component design decision is presented. The generation of solution options is carried out in an automatic randomized search mode by replacing Boolean variables with random ones.

** Keywords:**
cyberphysical system, CAD, structural and component design, optimization, expert assessment