** Keywords:**
ontology, resource allocation, distributed computing, distributed computing management, resource management, optimization

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Online media

issn 2310-6018

issn 2310-6018

2024.
T.12.
№ 1.
id 1508

Klimenko A.B.
Barinov A.A.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2024.44.1.018

Currently, managing computing resources in modern distributed computing systems is the relevant problem. As a result of infrastructure capability evolution, distributed computing can be organized in dynamic, heterogeneous and geographically distributed computing environments, examples of which are “fog” and “edge” ones. The dynamics of both load and topology imply the need to change the system configuration, namely, assigning user tasks to computing devices with the allocation of the necessary resources. The latter raises the issue of increasing the efficiency of the scheduler (broker), which facilitates management of network resources within the allocated fragment. Algorithmic and software schedulers are based on models and methods of scheduling theory and implement either simple heuristics, mathematical programming methods or metaheuristics. However, an analysis of publicly available problem statements has shown that, firstly, they are special cases and implement certain situations of computing resource distribution, and secondly, they do not fully reflect the properties of heterogeneity, geographical distribution and dynamics of computing environments. As part of this study, a general model of computing resource allocation problem is proposed with consideration to the listed properties, and a solution method using the subject ontology of metaheuristic methods is proposed. The feasibility of constructing and applying an ontology is shown using the example of analyzing the effectiveness of genetic algorithms depending on the values of the computing resource allocation problem parameters which is being solved.

** Keywords:**
ontology, resource allocation, distributed computing, distributed computing management, resource management, optimization

2024.
T.12.
№ 1.
id 1507

Burdukovskaya A.V.
Belykh T.I.
Rodionov A.V.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2024.44.1.013

The paper proposes two approaches to analyzing time series of bacterioplankton abundance in three different layers of the water column in Lake Baikal. In the first approach, the values of the seasonal component of the series are calculated using the moving average method, and additive and multiplicative models are constructed, from which the best models are selected on the basis of the calculated reliability coefficients. The seasonal component values in each of them are estimated. In the second one, correlation and regression analysis of joint changes in bacterioplankton abundance, temperature and lake water level is performed. Statistical hypotheses about the significance of correlation coefficients between the considered factors are put forward and tested. A mathematical model of multiple regression with inclusion of dummy variables describing the influence of seasonal fluctuations on changes in bacterioplankton abundance is constructed. Statistical assessment of the significance of the model and the factors included in the model is calculated. The results of correlation-regression analysis are interpreted in relation to the subject area under study. The findings can be used in predicting the amount of bacterioplankton in different periods of time, in making an ecological substantiation of the state of the lake, as well as in forecasting its microbiological state.

** Keywords:**
time series, bacterioplankton, moving average method, seasonal component, correlation and regression analysis, multiple regression model, lake Baikal

2024.
T.12.
№ 1.
id 1506

Rossikhina L.V.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2024.44.1.014

Planning is an important process for a project. The main planning processes include defining activities, planning resources, determining the duration of work, and developing a schedule. The paper examines projects with independent activities. The purpose of the study is to optimize project schedule by period. Three particular problems are considered. The first problem is to distribute activities over periods in order to achieve the maximum total effect of their implementation taking into account cost constraints in each period and the possibility of partial implementation of the activities in a given period. The solution algorithm is based on the Cost-Effect method. The validity of the proposed algorithm has been proved. The second problem deals with the distribution of work over periods with the prohibition of transferring part of the work to other periods and limitation of costs in each period. Based on the method of dichotomous programming, we propose an algorithm for solving the problem for two periods. For the number of periods greater than two, an approximate algorithm is suggested. For the case when information on unperformed activities in the course of project implementation changes, the problem of maximizing the total effect from the implementation of project activities in the current period is considered. Additionally, the effect from the implementation of a set of activities is visible after their completion and a certain effect manifests from the partial implementation of another set of activities. The effect obtained is proportional to the part of the amount of work performed. An algorithm for solving the problem based on obtaining parametric dependences of the total effect for each set of activities on the value of costs is proposed. The validity of the algorithm has been proved. Examples illustrating the application of the proposed algorithms are presented.

** Keywords:**
project, work, period, effect, costs, resource, satchel problem, dichotomous programming method

2024.
T.12.
№ 1.
id 1504

Avetisyan T.V.
Minaev K.A.
Preobrazhenskiy A.P.
Preobrazhenskiy Y.P.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2024.44.1.034

The paper considers the problem of signal propagation indoors. Several stages were considered in solving this problem. At the first stage, a model of electromagnetic wave propagation through the wall was built. An approach based on geometric optics was used. To calculate the degree of absorption, it is necessary to take into account the dielectric and magnetic permeability of the wall material. In order to automate the calculation process, a program was written in C++, which makes it possible to quickly determine the power values under given conditions. The attenuation of the radio signal depending on the angle of incidence on the wall is investigated. At the second stage, the tasks of determining the level of a propagating electromagnetic wave at various points inside the room are considered. At the third stage, the problem of optimizing the placement of the transmitting device inside the room is considered. A random search method was used with a sequential narrowing of the range of values. At the same time, the use of a local optimization method of the grid method was required. For each section of the grid, a local optimization method was used, which was the golden ratio method. As a result, after the implementation of several tens of thousands of iterations, the optimal placement of the transmitting device was determined. The scientific and practical significance of the work lies in the development of a complex algorithm for optimizing the placement of transmitting devices in the room based on a computational experiment.

** Keywords:**
wireless communication, electromagnetic wave propagation, electromagnetic wave absorption, optimization, signal strength, signal attenuation

2024.
T.12.
№ 1.
id 1501

Cherkesov D.S.
Kasatkina T.I.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2024.44.1.031

The article evaluates in detail the capabilities of patch antennas application based on the analysis of their advantages and disadvantages. The new patch antenna design was subjected to modeling, including description of its structure and creation of a three-dimensional model. The field distribution in the patch antenna geometry was obtained, which gives a complete picture of the influence of its structural elements on the electromagnetic properties. The directional diagram of the patch antenna is obtained, which reveals the angular features of its radiation. Plots of the gain of a single patch antenna, the gain of an 8×8 uniform array, and the gain of an 8×8 microstrip patch antenna plotted in dB-scale are constructed. It is shown that the design of the rectangular microstrip patch antenna with V-shaped notches provides better polarization at the edges compared to the center in the proposed patch antenna model, which can be a critical factor in real-world applications, especially in areas where communication quality is subject to external influences. The frequency at which this antenna resonates is 1,403 GHz, this allows for a wider bandwidth and improved impedance matching. These results emphasize the promising potential of the investigated patch antenna design in modern communication technologies and wireless data transmission systems.

** Keywords:**
patch antenna, wireless communication, radiation pattern, gain factor, electromagnetic characteristics, antenna modeling, resonant frequency, size optimization, impedance matching

2024.
T.12.
№ 1.
id 1500

Zhirnov A.A.
Ovchinskiy A.S.
Makarov V.F.
Gurlev I.V.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2024.44.1.010

The paper considers the applicability of a project approach to managing the activities of criminal investigation units. The problem of developing project management models for countering criminal threats is underscored. The disadvantages that do not make it possible to use the existing models of resource allocation in the subject area under study without significant adaptation are indicated. The criminal threat prevention project has been defined. The general parameters of such a project are given, which helps to determine the problem of renewable resource allocation. The approach to calculating the minimum amount of renewable resources required for the implementation of the k-th operation of the project. The problem of allocating renewable resources of the criminal threat prevention project, the purpose of which is to solve a crime, is defined. To solve this problem, an appropriate model of integer programming is proposed. A numerical example of the problem solution and a method of software implementation of the proposed model in a tabular processor are given. The features that the authors believe should be taken into account when applying the proposed model and methodology in practice and possible areas of future research are considered: the study of the project duration dependence type on the number of performers and other factors; the development of a knowledge base on the parameters of the conducted operations.

** Keywords:**
criminal threat prevention project, allocation of renewable resources, project approach, critical path method, CPM, PERT

2024.
T.12.
№ 1.
id 1499

Azhmukhamedov I.M.
Loba I.S.
Machueva D.A.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2024.44.1.008

The paper considers the relevant issues related to the problem of calculations and forecasting in the production of solar electricity as a renewable energy source. To detect problems, the initial data for modeling and their sources have been identified. Renewable energy sources are systematized and an example is given for each. An analysis of the state of the global energy market and the state of government policy in the field of energy in Russia has underscored the need to address solar energy issues and solve the problems of forecasting electricity generation. This is important not only due to the availability of resources, but also to environmental friendliness. The classification of existing models and methods for forecasting SES energy generation is examined. Existing methods allow calculations to predict the power generation capacity, but they give average figures for the year. New technological and innovative methods are required to solve the existing problem. The key factors and aspects of the introduction and operation of a solar power plant are presented. The main difficulty in forecasting is taking into account a variety of nonlinear characteristics. An attempt to solve this problem is proposed. An overview of the state of the problem and trends in the development of solar energy is made, among which the main problems are identified and solutions are outlined.

** Keywords:**
solar energy, renewable energy sources, aspects and operation of a solar power plant implementation, forecasting solar energy generation, forecasting methods

2024.
T.12.
№ 1.
id 1497

Akhmedyanova G.F.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2024.44.1.019

Predictive management with all its errors and difficulties is still an effective means of providing an organizational and technical system with time to increase its readiness for changes in the situation. To formulate and solve the problem of optimal control of this process, the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equation was used, which is the first approximation in the probabilistic description of random processes. To formulate the optimal control problem, the Letov criterion was modified, a coordinate-parametric approach was applied, and the obvious fact of an increase in management costs with a decrease in the time to improve the readiness of the organizational and technical system was taken into account in the form of the square of change rate in the probability density. The Euler-Ostrogradsky-Poisson equations are applied to the final Lagrangian. The resulting nonlinear equations were solved using the small parameter method. The study of the resulting solution proves that even with optimal control, the magnitude of control actions increases in proportion to the target value and duration of control (increasing the planning horizon), the increase occurs according to the cube of the exponential, that is, very slowly at the beginning of control and very sharply at the end, and a similar pattern of increase demonstrates the dependence of the control influences from the demand for management results, but it is expressed through hyperbolic functions.

** Keywords:**
optimal control, fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equation, probabilistic quality criteria, intensity of application of control actions, small parameter method

2024.
T.12.
№ 1.
id 1495

Tishin N.R.
Ozmidov O.R.
Proletarsky A.V.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2024.44.1.007

The article examines the development of a new approach to storing and organizing the results of laboratory experiments with consideration to the features of their subsequent processing. To solve this problem, laboratory experiments are considered as structured data with unstructured parts. During the development of the system, the features of storing and processing laboratory test data were analyzed, after which the basic requirements for the system were formulated. The main data models were defined as well as the database entities. A standard relational data model has been chosen for storing structured data, and the storage of unstructured information such as experiment results or experiment parameters is implemented through the BJSON field. To solve the problem of providing secure access and creating an API for the system, the asynchronous FastAPI framework was chosen. The implementation of storing additional experiment files, which are located in the object storage and are associated with the experiment in the relational model through an additional entity, is also considered. The presented approach is notable for its flexibility to the structure of stored laboratory experiments, takes into account the features of geological laboratory experiments and also provides opportunities for complex meta-analysis of large volume of data. The system was tested and implemented into the technological process of the geotechnical laboratory at JSC MOSTDORGEOTREST.

** Keywords:**
storage of geological laboratory experiment data, unstructured data, experiment results storage system, geoinformation system, database, geological environment, information resource, engineering geology

2024.
T.12.
№ 1.
id 1493

Chernoverskaya V.V.
Nguyen H.D.
Lu N.T.
The H.V.
Uvaysov S.U.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2024.44.1.004

The article presents the results of the acoustic emission method application (AE) and machine learning algorithms in the problem of diagnosing defects in the stratification of a multilayer printed circuit board structure (MPB). A combination of physical and computational experiments is used to solve the problem. To conduct full-scale tests, the study uses a vibration stand to generate a load on the test object and receive acoustic emission signals. The computational experiment is carried out using mathematical modeling in a specialized ABAQUS environment. In order to obtain the best solution to the problem, an optimization problem is solved during the experiment to determine the frequency of the harmonic signal generated by the vibration stand with a view to receiving the maximum response of the MPB under review and unambiguous identification of the bundle defect. When conducting the numerical experiments, the effects and reactions (AE signals) of MPB were modeled at different frequencies of input vibration signals ranging from 100 to 2000 Hz. Full-scale experiments were conducted in the laboratory of control and testing of radioelectronic devices at the Department of KPRES of RTU MIREA. The results of the study have shown that the vibration frequency most effective for detecting a delamination defect equals 1500 Hz (a defect of almost rectangular shape with a size of 30×37 mm). Subsequently, this was confirmed by correlation analysis, which made it possible to identify the maximum differences between the acoustic emission signals of a suitable MPB sample and a sample with a delamination defect for the input vibration of a given frequency. The second part of the study deals with processing of the physical and computational experiment results, establishing the degree of adequacy of the obtained mathematical models to real samples of MPB and the processes occurring in them, as well as the use of machine learning algorithms for more reliable diagnosis of MPB defects. In the presented study, the random forest and the support vector machine learning (SVM) methods were employed as machine learning algorithms. Based on the results of their execution, the accuracy of the two algorithms was evaluated.

** Keywords:**
acoustic emission, multilayer printed circuit board, hidden defects, structure stratification, modeling, physical experiment, machine learning algorithm, support vector machine method, random forest method, non-destructive testing

2023.
T.11.
№ 4.
id 1490

Dabas M.R.
Saraev P.V.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2023.43.4.032

The article considers the structure and functional content of a software package for modeling the temperature regime in the strip and working rolls during hot rolling of steel. Software with real input parameters and interval input parameters has been developed for modeling of temperature. This article discusses software with interval input parameters, its content and design. The article presents the structure of software for modeling temperature in interval values, thermal conductivity equations for solving problems of modeling temperatures in the deformation zone, on the interstand gap and intermediate roller with interval input parameters. The scheme of the temperature modeling algorithm is considered, taking into account the configurations of cooling systems at a hot rolling mill, and an algorithm for finding friction coefficients taking into account interval input parameters is separately presented. The main functions of the implemented library of classical interval arithmetic are described with an indication of the mathematical description. The description of the interface for software modeling the temperature of the strip with interval input parameters and some functions is given. Groups of software input parameters are presented with a description of possible values and their units of measurement.

** Keywords:**
equation of thermal conductivity, software structure, interval arithmetic, hot rolling, energy-power calculations

2024.
T.12.
№ 1.
id 1489

Romanov A.S.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2024.44.1.001

This paper considers methods for authorship attribution of natural-language and artificially generated texts, which are important in the context of cybersecurity and intellectual property protection to prevent misinformation and fraud. The use of authorship methods is justified by the findings on the fastText and support vector method (SVM) effectiveness discussed in past studies. The feature selection algorithm is chosen based on the comparison of five different methods: genetic algorithm, forward and backward sequential methods, regularization selection and Shapley's method. The considered selection algorithms include heuristic methods, game theory elements and iterative algorithms. The regularisation-based algorithm is found to be the most efficient method, while methods based on complete brute-force selection are found to be inefficient for any set of authors. The regularization-based and SVM-based selection accuracy averaged 77 %, outperforming the other methods by between 3 and 10 % for an identical number of features. For the same tasks, the average accuracy of fastText is 84 %. A study was conducted to examine the robustness of the developed approach to generative samples. SVM proved to be more robust to model confounding. The maximum loss of accuracy for fastText was 16 % and for SVM was 12 %.

** Keywords:**
feature selection, authorship attribution, machine learning, neural networks, text analysis, information security

2023.
T.11.
№ 4.
id 1487

Latypova V.A.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2023.43.4.035

A reviewer multicriteria choice task appears when defining reviewers for manuscripts submitted to the scientific journal. This is related to the fact that it is necessary not only choose reviewers, whose publications are most similar to manuscripts on the specifics of the research, but also take into account and other, not less significant, reviewers’ features. In the existing works, it is suggested to use different criteria, mainly involving reviewers’ expertise and authority. However, such criteria as quality of work in a reviewer role has not gained proper attention. The experience of reviewing, the quality of manuscript assessing and reviewer’s activity can significantly affect the result of the reviewing and its time. In the paper, it is suggested a decision support method in reviewer multicriteria choice using integrated assessment, taking into account the quality of work in a reviewer role, and natural language processing methods in scientific journal, which will allow to solve the described issue. Testing of the method on data on reviewers of scientific journal “Information technologies” showed its validity. Taking into account such criteria as the quality of work in a reviewer role in addition to the generally accepted features has a substantial impact on the reviewer choice for manuscripts.

** Keywords:**
decision support, multicriteria choice, scientific journal, reviewer, integrated assessment, natural language processing

2024.
T.12.
№ 1.
id 1486

Akutin A.S.
Goriakin M.V.
Zubavlenko R.A.
Pechenkin V.V.
Solopekin D.A.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2024.44.1.011

Today, the X-ray analysis procedure makes it possible to detect osteoarthritis (OA) in the early stages of the disorder. The presence or absence of the disorder is detected only when it has already manifested, and X-ray diagnostics have been carried out. The use of automated procedures for analyzing X-ray images and the availability of archives of such information with a long history can improve the results of predicting complications in patients. The article describes the experience of developing an application for computer analysis of radiographs, which, based on deep learning methods, allows us to identify the risks of developing osteoarthritis of the hip joint. The archive of a specialized medical institute is used as a training sample. In order to increase the size of the training set of radiographs, a data augmentation method is used, which increases the variability of the original data and, in some cases, increases the recognition efficiency. The research uses a convolutional network (U-net) designed for image segmentation, which is trained on X-ray images of a specific medical institution. As part of a project to segment and analyze the geometric characteristics of X-ray images of the hip joints, the software to automate the recognition of the joint space size was developed, which helps to clarify the patient’s diagnosis and prognosis for the development of the pathology.

** Keywords:**
convolutional neural network, image segmentation, machine learning, osteoarthritis, hip joint

2024.
T.12.
№ 1.
id 1484

Gainutdinov R.R.
Chermoshentsev S.F.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2024.44.1.021

The current stage of unmanned aircraft system development is characterized by the widespread introduction of automated and intelligent electronic systems. One of the most difficult and critical stages in the development of unmanned aerial vehicles is determining the optimal locations for placing on-board equipment in the fuselage space. To solve this problem, the approach for determining the optimal installation locations for on-board equipment in the fuselage space of an unmanned aerial vehicle is proposed. The approach is based on the use of a genetic algorithm. A meaningful and mathematical formulation of the problem of determining the optimal installation locations for on-board equipment in the fuselage space of an unmanned aerial vehicle is given. Criteria and restrictions have been developed. As optimization criteria, first of all, electromagnetic compatibility criteria are considered, which are characterized by minimizing the sensitivity of on-board equipment above the level of electromagnetic field strength at the installation sites of on-board equipment, as well as limiting the excess of the threshold level of susceptibility of on-board equipment over the electromagnetic environment resulting from electromagnetic influences or interactions. Additionally, criteria for minimizing the total weighted length of cable connections are considered, and the maximum load-carrying capacity of the fuselage compartments of an unmanned aerial vehicle is limited. The plan has been developed for the installation of on-board equipment in the fuselage space using a developed program that implements a genetic algorithm.

** Keywords:**
placement, optimization, on-board equipment, genetic algorithm, unmanned aerial vehicle

2023.
T.11.
№ 4.
id 1483

Nikiforova A.Y.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2023.43.4.034

Mathematical modeling of computer virus epidemics is the most important area of theoretical research in the field of information security. This paper examines a Markov model of the computer virus spread based on the Reed–Frost model. The main aim of the article is to analyze the applicability of the modified Reed-Frost model to the class of networks associated with random Erdos-Renyi graphs. In particular, the effect of the ratio of the probability of cure to the probability of infection on stopping the spread of a computer virus was tested. The results of this model are compared with ones obtained via the simulation modeling for different values of epidemic parameters and network characteristics. In the calculations and experiments carried out, the following parameters changed: the probability of infection, the probability of cure, as well as the connectivity of the network. The Wolfram Mathematica symbolic computing system was used for calculations. A C++ program written earlier by the author and their supervisor was used to conduct the computational experiment. The studies show that, under certain parameters, the condition for ending the epidemic is confirmed by both theoretical calculations and experimental results. However, the epidemic vanishes before the threshold value calculated is reached. In the future, the author plans to give a more accurate theoretical assessment of the conditions for ending the epidemic.

** Keywords:**
computer virus, probability of infection, probability of cure, random graph, reed-Frost model, susceptible node

2023.
T.11.
№ 4.
id 1482

Gilmullin M.F.
Gilmullin T.M.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2023.43.4.030

The article discusses and formally introduces the concepts of a number series anomaly and an anomaly filter function. The relevance of the research is due to the absence of a unified approach to understanding the concept of anomaly. At the same time, they play a key role in solving many practical problems. The study uses a method for measuring the stability of the selected method of statistical assessment for outliers using breakdown points and sliding windows. The method of filtering a number series for outliers is based on a combination of the median and the median absolute deviation. In relation to solving a wide range of issues in IT automation а modification of the Hampel method is proposed for determining outliers in a sample. Functions for filtering a number series for anomalies and determining the index of the first anomalous element are developed in Python. As an example, a script was developed using the Jupyter Notebook platform to solve the problem of quick search for anomalies in stock prices by means of the modified Hampel method. To obtain a sample with outliers, the author's library is used to generate test stock data. The experimental results confirm that the proposed algorithms can clearly filter anomalies for different values of adjustable parameters. The advantages and disadvantages of this method are noted. The Hampel filter is easy to optimize and parallelize. The article has practical application for solving the problem of automation and identifying anomalies in number series.

** Keywords:**
number series, anomalies, outliers, filtering, hampel

2023.
T.11.
№ 4.
id 1481

Arutiunian M.A.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2023.43.4.036

This article presents one of the scientific results obtained by the author during the dissertation study. The problem of forming a convenient and safe pedestrian infrastructure, which is one of the urgent issues of the development of a modern city, is revealed. An analysis of Russian and foreign experience in organizing pedestrian infrastructure was carried out. It was revealed that in the Russian experience of organizing effective and safe pedestrian infrastructure, problems are often observed that occur in neighborhoods with any types of development, including such as the absence or irrational location of technical means of organizing traffic. A mathematical model has been developed that makes it possible to assess the probability of a pedestrian crossing a street in a particular place along the entire length. The parameters of the proposed model are defined. It is also proposed to apply the results of studies of human behavior in situations in which similar or the same psychoemotional motivators work, prompting the intersection of the street in a particular place, as well as to use dependencies that obviously correlate with the statistical dependencies necessary for conducting this study. The obtained results are proposed to be used in subsequent works in the development of a simulated model of traffic management, which allows assessing the congestion of the road network and subsequent optimization of transport and pedestrian flows in order to ensure the required road safety.

** Keywords:**
model, parameters, traffic and pedestrian flows, probability, road network, road accident, road safety

2023.
T.11.
№ 4.
id 1479

Azarnova T.V.
Polukhin P.V.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2023.43.4.031

Ensuring the sustainability of web applications with respect to various security threats plays a crucial role in the development of modern information support technologies for industrial enterprises, financial structures and service organizations. This explains the high relevance of the development of new scientifically sound effective computational methods, algorithms and problem-oriented programs for testing web applications with a complex functional structure of internal and external interaction, which implement the capabilities of streaming data generated from the results of each of the test steps, and the application of the results in the process of managing the testing of web applications. The article describes the concept of modeling testing processes, research of the obtained models and development of analysis and prediction algorithms, based on a formalized apparatus of dynamic Bayesian networks. The Bayesian models proposed in the paper, built on the basis of statistical training, help to determine time relationships for each of the parameters determined during the test procedure, provide the opportunity to predict test results by performing simulations using probabilistic inference methods.

** Keywords:**
web application vulnerabilities, bayesian network, probabilistic inference problems, testing process, monte Carlo method using Markov circuits, particle filtering algorithm

2023.
T.11.
№ 4.
id 1477

Lyutikova L.A.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2023.43.4.037

In this paper, we propose a method for interpreting neural network solutions based on the use of Boolean integro-differential calculus. This method allows you to investigate the logic of decision-making by neural networks and determine the most important signs that affect their decisions. The method can be applied to classification problems, especially in cases where each feature can be represented as a k-valued variable. The paper considers local and global interpretations of solutions. At the first stage, each input vector is associated with the corresponding output of the neural network. Then, by solving a Boolean equation, logical functions are found that adequately reflect the input data and their corresponding outputs. At the second stage, global interpretation, functions are constructed that combine previously found logical functions. This choice of functions is based on their ability to most accurately reflect the decisions of the neural network and the study area. At the second stage, global interpretation, functions are constructed that combine previously found logical functions. This choice of functions is based on their ability to most accurately reflect the decisions of the neural network and the study area. The resulting function has interpretability, modifiability and the ability to represent a complete set of solutions corresponding to a given query. It also highlights the most significant features for each solution. The paper considers the practical implementation of the method on the example of a neural network trained on the basis of the structure and input data consisting of answers to questionnaire questions, with an output node predicting the diagnosis. In parallel with the development of the neural network, an interpretive model is being built, which allows identifying the most important signs for each diagnosis based on the decisions of the neural network. In addition, in cases with boundary solutions, when the neural network provides only one possible solution, the interpretative model is able to find all possible solutions with a predetermined accuracy, which helps to avoid mistakes in decision-making.

** Keywords:**
neural networks, interpreter, connections, boolean differentiation, input data, analysis, hidden patterns

2023.
T.11.
№ 4.
id 1476

Kirillova A.D.
Vulfin A.M.
Vasilyev V.I.
Guzairov M.B.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2023.43.4.029

The relevance of the article is due to the need to ensure information security of industrial control systems (ICS). Loss of control over industrial facilities can lead to undesirable consequences in a particular subject of the state or affect the economic indicators of the country as a whole as well as compromise the safety of the population. In this regard, this article aims to improve the procedure for quantitative assessment of information security risks as a necessary component of an integrated approach to ensuring information security, which helps to assess the feasibility of information security violation scenarios and identify their possible consequences for building an effective protection system. The architecture of a research prototype of an intelligent decision support system and a software implementation of tools for automating the modeling of attack scenarios and assessing the information security risks of ICS have been developed, the use of which makes it possible to increase the reliability and efficiency of information security risk assessment and, consequently, the choice of effective countermeasures at all stages of an industrial facility life cycle and its complex protection systems. The materials of the article are of practical value for information security specialists at all stages of the life cycle of distributed information and control systems of industrial facilities.

** Keywords:**
information security risk assessment, intelligent decision support system, cognitive modeling, scenario modeling, graph models

2023.
T.11.
№ 4.
id 1474

Gusev P.Y.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2023.43.4.025

The article is devoted to the formation of principles for constructing a data access system for a multifunctional digitalized system (MDS). The features of data generation and storage in the MDS are described. The importance of the unified information space of the MDS is shown and the peculiarity of the formation of a unified information space is described. Taking into account the peculiarities of the functioning of the MDS, the main tasks have been identified, the solution of which forms the model of access to data in the system. The dependence of the relevance of data on the assignment of those responsible for the data is indicated. The task has been set to ensure information security of a single information space. It is shown that the task of securing responsibility for data in the MDS is related to the task of disaggregating resources by type of activity attracted through functional areas. The dependence of MDS performance indicators on types of activities, functional areas and types of resources is shown. The paper examines mandatory, discretionary and role-based models of access to data. The shortcomings of access models in relation to the features of the MDS are identified. An architecture for regulating access to data using software modules and services is proposed. It is suggested to create a monitoring environment based on the construction of data sets determined through the performance indicators of the MDS.

** Keywords:**
multifunctional digital environment, management, data, access rights, common information space

2023.
T.11.
№ 4.
id 1473

Frolov S.V.
Korobov A.A.
Savinova K.S.
Potlov A.Y.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2023.43.4.016

The history of neonatal incubator development and the evolution of its design were described. A generalized structural and functional diagram of a modern neonatal incubator was presented. Airflow patterns have been studied in detail, including illustration of typical airflow paths in double-walled incubators. A classification of neonatal incubators was given. Information about manufacturers of modern incubators was presented in a table that includes 51 manufacturers from 17 countries with the addresses of web sites that contain specifications of medical products they manufacture. Publications that discuss modeling heat and mass transfer processes in incubators for newborns were analyzed. It was concluded that modern computational aerodynamics packages are usually used for numerical modeling with consideration to the infant’s thermoregulation, their 3D-model, air circulation, convective, radiant and conductive heat transfer. Numerical modeling research is usually combined with physical modeling. The movement of air flows is analyzed using visible and infrared video cameras. The use of anatomically correct neonatal phantoms created by means of additive manufacturing was demonstrated. The thermoregulation process is simulated with the help of electric heaters, temperature sensors and control systems based on microcontrollers. The methods for monitoring the physiological parameters of an infant placed inside a neonatal incubator were reviewed. The advantages of non-contact monitoring methods using video cameras and thermometry has been illustrated. Modern neonatal incubator control systems were examined. The proportional integral derivative controllers are the basis of almost all control algorithms in neonatal incubation systems. The studies on the application of fuzzy logic control and various types of adaptive control in neonatal incubators were presented. It has been concluded that the structural and functional diagram of a neonatal incubator needs to be improved with a view to protecting from noise, electromagnetic radiation, infections, and harmful airborne contaminants. Potential approaches to improving the efficiency of maintaining neonatal-appropriate environmental conditions in neonatal incubators have been demonstrated.

** Keywords:**
neonatal incubator, neonatal tissue-like phantom, numerical model, heat and mass transfer, system for monitoring physiological parameters, microclimate control, environmental neonatology

2024.
T.12.
№ 1.
id 1472

Sulavko A.E.
Vasilyev V.I.
Klinovenko S.A.
Lozhnikov P.S.
Suvyrin G.A.
Guzairov M.B.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2024.44.1.017

An analytical study was carried out on the problem of preventing emergency situations and predictive diagnostics of equipment during hydrocarbon production in oil and gas fields as well as the ways to solve this problem by means of artificial intelligence based on deep neural networks. One of the key factors hindering the development of predictive equipment diagnostic systems is the lack of data describing pre-emergency situations, which is necessary for high-quality training of neural network models. An analysis of recent publications and research on the subject of telemetry data analysis and emergency recognition is provided. Neural network models are considered that can be used to predict the failure of pumping and compressor equipment and other units. Cases of the use of neural network models specially trained to solve this problem, as well as neural network models used in other tasks but analyzing similar data structures, were studied. The issue of transfer learning is raised to adapt neural network models originally developed and trained for other areas to use in the area under consideration in order to reduce the sample size when training industrial artificial intelligence. A comparison of the achieved results was carried out, and the advantages and disadvantages of existing technical solutions were identified.

** Keywords:**
artificial neural networks, predictive diagnostics, machine learning, time series, telemetry, maintenance, data sets

2024.
T.12.
№ 1.
id 1471

Bredikhin B.A.
Antor M.
Khlebnikov N.A.
Melnikov A.V.
Bachurin M.V.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2024.44.1.002

The relevance of the paper is due to the difficulties of oral interaction between people with speech disorders and normotypic interlocutors as well as the low quality of abnormal speech recognition by standard speech recognition systems and the inability to create a system capable of processing any speech disorders. In this regard, this article is aimed at developing a method for automatic recognition of dysarthric speech using a pre-trained neural network for recognizing phonemes and hidden Markov models for converting phonemes into text and subsequent correction of recognition results using a search in the space of acceptable words of the nearest Levenshtein word and a dynamic algorithm for splitting the output of the model into separate words. The main advantage of using hidden Markov models in comparison with neural networks is the small size of the training data set collected individually for each user, as well as the ease of training the model further in case of progressive speech disorders. The data set for model training is described, and recommendations for collecting and marking data for model training are given. The effectiveness of the proposed method is tested on an individual data set recorded by a person with dysarthria; the recognition quality is compared with neural network models trained on the data set used. The materials of the article are of practical value for creating an augmented communication system for people with speech disorders.

** Keywords:**
hidden Markov models, dysarthria, automatic speech recognition, phonemes recognition, phoneme correction

2023.
T.11.
№ 4.
id 1470

Malyshev V.A.
Mitrofanov D.V.
Sidelev M.N.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2023.43.4.019

The article presents a mathematical model of the decision-making process by a command group in the context of conflict interaction of the requirements for the efficiency and validity of the decision. The proposed mathematical model reflects the physical and practical features of the decision-making process by the command group and takes into account the main factors influencing it. To model the decision-making process, the following are defined: stages of decision-making; the indicator characterizing the qualification of the officials included in the group; the indicator characterizing the quality of information support; an indicator characterizing the novelty of the task; the indicator characterizing the scale of activities, the indicator characterizing process automation. The model introduces a decision-making efficiency coefficient, which helps to link two main indicators of an optimal solution: validity (through the average time of development and analysis of several decision options) and efficiency (through the ratio of the total average decision-making time and the allocated time); this makes it possible to account for the influence of the quality of the decision made for the subsequent planning process. A coefficient of adopted decision obsolescence has been introduced, which helps to assess the relevance of the adopted decision after a certain period of time. Using a mathematical model, analytical expressions are obtained that make it possible to evaluate the effectiveness of decision-making while taking into account the average time of the decision-making stages and the quality factor of the command group.

** Keywords:**
command group, decision-making process, validity of decision-making, efficiency of decision-making, quality factor of the combat control group, probability of making a well-founded and prompt decision, decision-making efficiency factor

2023.
T.11.
№ 4.
id 1469

Magomedsaidova S.Z.
Magomedova S.V.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2023.43.4.027

The analysis of electrolytes in the blood serum helpsto identify the pathological state of the human body by means of indicators of calcium, sodium and potassium. It is possible to quantify the indicated indicators by means of spectroscopy (LIBS), which makes it possible to identify sufficiently accurate data in numerical values. The aim of the study is to form the possibility of a more accurate prediction of probable diseases by means of indicators of sodium, calcium and potassium in the blood. The research process was carried out by using the available biomaterials presented by the INVITRO laboratory of Makhachkala, the Republic of Dagestan, which were subsequently used for the analysis of electrolytes in blood serum on filter paper and slides. In order to predict the concentrations of potassium, sodium and calcium under consideration by means of LIBS, the method of partial least squares regression was applied. For serum samples, higher prediction accuracy with excellent linearity was achieved both on slides and on filter paper. For blood serum on slides, the prediction accuracy of K, Na, Ca was 1,45 %, 0,61 % and 3,80 %. Moreover, for blood serum on filter paper with the existing errors were 7,47 %, 1,56 % and 0,52 %. Results. The results of the study suggest that LIBS portable tools will be an excellent tool for clinical practice in real time.

** Keywords:**
blood serum, clinical practice, analytical method, real time

2024.
T.12.
№ 1.
id 1468

Ali M.
Saklakov V.M.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2024.44.1.032

Underwater optical wireless communications are promising and future-oriented wireless carriers to support underwater activities focused on 5G and beyond (5GB) wireless systems. The main challenges for the deployment of underwater applications are the physicochemical properties and strong turbulence in the transmission channel. Therefore, this paper analyzes the end-to-end performance of a hybrid free space optics (FSO) and underwater wireless visible light communication (UVLC) system under intensity modulation or direct detection (IM/DD) in a method considering a pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) scheme. In this study, a fading model with Gamma-Gamma (GG) distribution is used to deal with channel conditions with moderate and strong turbulence, and the links are designed by combining plane wave modeling in the corresponding links, respectively. The proposed performance methods excel in higher achievable data rates with minimal delay response and improves network connectivity in real-time monitoring scenarios compared to conventional underwater wireless communication techniques. The simulation results provide reliable estimates of system performance metrics such as average bit error rate (ABER) and probability of failure (Pout) in the presence of pointing errors. Finally, this paper uses a Monte Carlo approach for best curve fitting and validate the numerical expression with simulation results.

** Keywords:**
5G and 5GB networks, cooperative communication, optical communication, underwater communication, underwater sensor networks (USNs), VLC light communication

2023.
T.11.
№ 4.
id 1467

Zaytseva E.V.
Kochneva A.A.
Katuntsov E.V.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2023.43.4.033

The main subtle aspects of airborne laser scanning (ALS) involve a large level of density of laser reflection points (LRP) within a certain unit area. This results in the need to process a large amount of information while building digital terrain models (DTMs). Such processing is computationally intensive. For this reason, the main task which is solved during DTM building is to create an accurate description of terrain features required for geodetic works. At the same time, it is necessary to observe the minimum number of LRPs related to the characteristic landforms in the considered location to minimize the use of computing power. Currently available algorithms of information distribution for DTMs built on standard coordinate grids do not allow to successfully resolve data arrays while preserving the proper detalisation level of certain locations. New software, which is used in geodesy and makes it possible to create sparse data arrays during DTM building, is based on a closed code. The paper proposes an algorithm for finding unknown intermediate data obtained with laser scanning of terrain relief, which allows effective thinning of laser reflection points that are insignificant when describing the terrain relief. An automatic technique of DTM building is developed. An algorithm for searching unknown intermediate LRP arrays is formed. Displot is available for sloped areas as well. At the same time detailisation in the quality of structure lines and special points is preserved.

** Keywords:**
digital terrain model (DTM), digital relief model (DRM), airborne laser scanning, quality assessment of digital terrain models, digital mine model

2023.
T.11.
№ 4.
id 1466

Potudinskiy A.V.

DOI: 10.26102/2310-6018/2023.43.4.021

Along with the rapidly growing demand for unmanned aerial vehicles for surveillance and reconnaissance, advanced controllers are needed for these critical systems. This article proposes a design of a flight dynamics controller that takes into account various uncertainties for a medium-range unmanned aerial vehicle. In addition to the nonlinearities of flight dynamics, three main sources of uncertainties caused by unknown controller parameters, simulation errors and external interference are considered. A reliable adaptive fuzzy logic controller responsible for nonlinear flight dynamics under the conditions of many uncertainties has been developed. Nonlinear flight dynamics relies on a soft association of local linear models. When constructing the controller, the optimal reference model is defined, which is stabilized using the linear quadratic controller procedure. Then a fuzzy logic controller is developed for the nonlinear model. In order to eliminate uncertainties, the gain coefficients of the fuzzy logic controller are reconfigured and constantly adjusted for reliable adaptation. The performance of a reliable adaptive fuzzy logic controller is evaluated in terms of stabilizing the transverse and longitudinal flight dynamics and tracking the state variables of the reference model under the conditions of various uncertainties.

** Keywords:**
controller, fuzzy logic, flight dynamics, nonlinearity, uncertainty, model, control, parameter, unmanned aerial vehicle